Copyright © 1998 - 2021 SciTechDaily. The Philippines hotspot is one of the richest regions in biodiversity, including more than 7,100 islands in the Pacific Ocean. d) Bahammas. This is life, this is biodiversity. Biodiversity is the name we give to the variety of all life on Earth. Biodiversity, also called biological diversity, the variety of life found in a place on Earth or, often, the total variety of life on Earth. Situated in the Western Cape, this hotspot boasts the highest concentration of plant species per square kilometer in the world. Originally boasting more than 1 million square km, the region has plummeted to just 226,000 square km in size. The findings were published in the Science Advances Journal and used an assessment process […] Credit: Richard Cowling, “The results suggest that climatic variation will not affect the biodiversity of all regions evenly. Places that are particularly rich in biodiversity. The research set out to find an answer by focusing on the Cape Floristic Region in South Africa, a non-tropical heartland of biodiversity with around ten times as many native plant species as the UK, squeezed into an area a little smaller than Belgium. ... “I found it incredibly exciting as the first visible effects of major evolutionary events started to emerge,” Hoyal Cuthill says. Unfortunately, no less than 25 bird species became extinct in the past 200 years, due to invasive species and overhunting. Habitat loss and human activities, in general, have posed a high risk on these green spots. Kirstenbosch Botanical Gardens, Rhodes Drive, Newlands, Cape Town, South Africa. c) 40 million. A new study has indicated that 31.7% of tropical African flora species are at risk of going extinct, affecting those countries that rely on its biodiversity for tourism and fuel. Protecting forests is key to this - they cover almost a third of the global land area and harbour most of the Earth’s terrestrial biodiversity. d) 59 million . The Himalaya hotspot may just be the most widespread of them all, covering China, Nepal, Bhutan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Myanmar. Of all the known species in the world, 10% are in the Amazon rainforest. But…. The hotspot provides habitat for 8,000 endemic plant species and around 950 birds. Of all the known species in the world, 10% are in the Amazon rainforest. Most plants in a biodiversity hotspot are endemic, meaning they are not found anywhere else on Earth. All of these species were found only in Lake Victoria; therefore, the 500 species of cichlids were endemic. Some 90 other endemic bird species are currently threatened. Without plants, there would be no oxygen. All Rights Reserved. A highland area, this hotspot initially covered more than 461,000 square km across Mexico and southern U.S. Amazing discoveries: 1200 new species found in the Amazon. The hardwood trees in the rainforests that are our most effective above-ground carbon sinks are also the … Kirstenbosch Botanical Gardens, Rhodes Drive, Newlands, Cape Town, South Africa. The UK government is facing criticism for a lack of progress in hitting major biodiversity targets. “This rich resource enabled us to pull together an interdisciplinary team from South Africa and the UK to tackle one of the most challenging questions in ecology and highlights how important international collaborations are to the future success of South African research and the conservation of its biodiversity.”, Reference: “Plant richness, turnover, and evolutionary diversity track gradients of stability and ecological opportunity in a megadiversity center” by Jonathan F. Colville, Colin M. Beale, Félix Forest, Res Altwegg, Brian Huntley and Richard M. Cowling, 5 August 2020, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. As an ecosystem, the Amazon is one of the most biodiverse places on earth. Ocean acidification may render most regions of the ocean inhospitable to coral reefs, affecting tourism, food security, shoreline protection, and biodiversity. So what’s the reason behind this incredible biodiversity? Biodiversity loss, also called loss of biodiversity, a decrease in biodiversity within a species, an ecosystem, a given geographic area, or Earth as a whole. While the rate of loss varies across regions, WWF has identified five major threats that are linked to drops in species populations across all regions:. The study found that conservation action does work: in the first analysis of its kind, researchers found that the global biodiversity decline would have … Thus, this energy is available for species to use and diversify. These exist because species – both flora and fauna – do not live in the same densities around the planet. The amount of available energy or productivity is also thought to contribute to diversity, and tropical rainforests have a large amount of both. All living things exist within their own communities, or ecosystems - oceans, forests, deserts, ice caps and even cities. This biodiversity hotspot originally covered about 1.2 million square km. a) China. At the equator sufficient rain fall, temperature, etc., favour luxuriant growth of the biodiversity. Lead author, Dr. Jonathan Colville from the University of Cape Town said: “In South Africa we are fortunate to not only have incredible biodiversity, but also a uniquely detailed knowledge of where these plants are found, thanks to the collections at SANBI (South African Biodiversity Institute). Latin America and Caribbean has seen the most loss, with a 94% drop in average species populations, while Africa comes in second with a 65% drop.. Coral reefs are the nurseries of the oceans, they are biodiversity hot spots. Biodiversity loss, also called loss of biodiversity, a decrease in biodiversity within a species, an ecosystem, a given geographic area, or Earth as a whole. Without the many species living out there, we wouldn’t have air to breathe, water to drink, or food to eat. RELATED: [10 Eco Resorts That Set the New Earth-Friendly Standard]. But the number of howler monkeys in each rainforest differs and this describes their species richness in each rainforest. Biodiversity is greater inside the world’s protected areas, scientists have been able to show for the first time. Like amphibians, insect species richness is greatest in tropical latitudes. The 5 Major Threats for Biodiversity Loss. SciTechDaily: Home of the best science and technology news since 1998. Coral reefs are the nurseries of the oceans, they are biodiversity hot spots. Terrestrial biodiversity is thought to be up to 25 times greater than ocean biodiversity. Amazonia represents the quintessence of biodiversity – the richest ecosystem on earth. So… The rivers and lagoons found within the park are home to the spectacled caiman, American crocodile and bull sharks. Australia is an interesting case of mega-biodiversity as it is one of two developed countries in the list. Biodiversity: Biodiversity is the variety and differences among living organisms from all sources, including terrestrial, marine, and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are a part. a) 3.5 billion . Earth’s biodiversity is the very basis for our own survival. One of the most famous of these biodiversity hotspots is Madagascar, an island country with an extremely high rate of endemism (species unique to that location). RELATED: [Coniferous Forest Biome – Why They Are Important]. Stemming this crisis starts with protecting the biodiversity spots. They found biodiversity to be driven by temperature. “Our study shows that the environmental stability of south-western South Africa, in conjunction with the region’s rugged topography, explains diversity gradients in the region. On some tropical coral reefs, for example, there can be 1,000 species per m². Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Our planet is a marvelous place to live on. 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Biodiversity also describes ecosystems or environments that contain a high degree of this variation — for example, the Amazon rainforest. The country harbors between 600,000 and 700,000 different plants and animals. Rare Star’s Giant Gamma-Ray Burst GRB 204015A Captured Close to Our Home Galaxy Earth gets blasted by mild short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) most days. They found that the region’s richness could be largely explained by the fact it had not experienced major changes in its climate over the past 140,000 years. Cattle then produce manure that returns nutrients to the soil, which helps to … Insects are found on land, in water and in air in nearly all habitats and all continents including Antarctica. The biodiversity hotspot concept first appeared in an article written by the scientist Norman Myers in 1988. Tropical rain forests on land and coral reefs in marine systems are among the most biologically diverse ecosystems on Earth and have become the focus of popular attention. The Cerrado is the name of the greatest woodland savannah in South America. Endemic species—species that are only found in one particular location—are also found in hotspots. Similarly, near major ecological boundaries, such as forest to grasslands or shrublands to semi-desert, climate change is likely to cause major, long-lasting loss of biological diversity.”. Two of the Most Diverse Ecosystems on Earth Species richness is greatest in tropical ecosystems. Most of the Earth’s surface is ocean. It encompasses diversity on many levels; the vast number of species of plants and animals, the genetic diversity within and between these species and the different biomes and ecosystems of which they are part, including rainforest, tundra and desert. Where would you expect to find more biodiversity? The concept is broad and complex, but that complexity is what makes Earth a perfect place for humans to live. Email address is optional. Co-author of the study, Dr. Colin Beale from the Department of Biology at the University of York, said: “Our research focussed on the incredible diversity of the Cape Floristic Region because the competing theories of stability versus productivity can’t be untangled in the tropics, where both are true. It forms the web of life, of which we are an integral part and upon which we so fully depend. It upholds some 4,400 endemic plant species, as well as some of the most fascinating animal species. But marine life accounts for only 15 percent of the world’s species. Q-31. Although mountain regions cover only 25% of Earth’s land area, they are home to more than 85% of the world’s species of amphibians, birds, and mammals, and many of these are found only in mountains. Discover the most diverse countries in the world. Biodiversity hotspots make up about 2.3 percent of Earth’s land surface, but 44 percent of the world’s plants and 35 percent of land vertebrates live in these regions. 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