reign of terror significance

These criticisms were often used by revolutionary leaders as justification for their dechristianisation reforms. In the provinces, representatives on mission and surveillance committees instituted local terrors. "The federalist revolt, the Vendée, and the start of the Terror (summer–fall 1793)." There is disagreement among historians over when exactly "the Terror" began. This created a mass overflow in the prison systems. Some consider it to have begun only in 1793, giving the date as either 5 September,[1] June[2] or March, when the Revolutionary Tribunal came into existence. Under the pressure of the radical sans-culottes, the Convention accepted to institute a revolutionary army, but refused to make terror the order of the day. Among those charged by the tribunal, about half were acquitted (though the number dropped to about a quarter after the enactment of the Law of 22 Prairial on 10 June 1794). [29] As the war continued and the Reign of Terror began, leaders saw a correlation between using terror and achieving victory. Omeka RSS. [38] The Committee oversaw the Reign of Terror. Yahoo Search Búsqueda en la Web. "Maximilien Robespierre, Master of the Terror." The young men shall fight; the married man shall forge arms and transport provisions; the women shall make tents and clothes and shall serve in the hospitals; the children shall pick rags to lint [for bandages]; the old men shall betake themselves to the public square in order to arouse the courage of the warriors and preach hatred of kings and the unity of the Republic. The government's violence during the Terror may have been an effort to prevent the 'sans-culottes' from taking violence into their hands. On 8 and 13 Ventôse (26 February and 3 March 1794), Saint-Just proposed decrees to confiscate the property of exiles and opponents of the revolution, known as the Ventôse Decrees. "[18] In Robespierre's speech to the National Convention on 5 February 1794, titled "Virtue & Terror", he regards virtue as being the "fundamental principle of popular or democratic government. Pp. Omissions? The Girondins were more conservative leaders of the National Convention, while the Montagnards supported radical violence and pressures of the lower classes. With the backing of the national guard, they persuaded the convention to arrest 29 Girondist leaders. Soboul cited in Mona Ozouf. On 8 Messidor (26 June 1794), the French army won the Battle of Fleurus, which marked a turning point in France's military campaign and undermined the necessity of wartime measures and the legitimacy of the Revolutionary Government. Other laws set up government control of prices, confiscated lands from those found guilty of failing to support the Revolution, and brought public assistance to the poor and disabled. [31] Once the Montagnards gained control of the National Convention, they began demanding radical measures. 2014. The Reign of Terror instituted the conscripted army, which saved France from invasion by other countries and in that sense preserved the Revolution. Montesquieu's Spirit of the Laws defines a core principle of a democratic government: virtue—described as "the love of laws and of our country. On 10 October the Convention decreed that "the provisional government shall be revolutionary until peace." If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. The fear of the guillotine and the mob justice led to self exile of several nobles and clergy. France began this war with a large series of defeats, which set a precedent of fear of invasion in the people that would last throughout the war. 27 February 2018. Jeremy D. Popkin, A Short History of the French Revolution, (London: Routledge, 2016), 64. Maximilien Robespierre: Maximilien Robespierre was born May 6, 1758, in Arras, France, and died on July 28, 1794 at the guillotine. It marked the first time that the lowest class in a country had overthrown the highest class. New members were appointed the day after Robespierre's execution, and limits on terms of office were fixed (a quarter of the committee retired every three months). Following the execution of Louis XVI, the more radical revolutionaries, the Jacobins, were concerned that foreign and domestic groups would threaten the continuing of the revolution. During the Reign of Terror, at least 300,000 suspects were arrested; 17,000 were officially executed, and perhaps 10,000 died in prison or without trial. On 29 September, the Convention extended price fixing from grain and bread to other essential goods, and also fixed wages. They regrouped and planned to attack France. They had, between them, made the Law of 22 Prairial one of the charges against him, so that, after his fall, to advocate terror would be seen as adopting the policy of a convicted enemy of the republic, putting the advocate's own head at risk. For other uses, see, "The Terror" redirects here. As early as May 1793 the National Convention imposed price controls on grain and bread in an effort to ensure an adequate food supply. Configuración (Yale University Press, 1989), 343. [28] With so many similarities to the first days of the Revolutionary Wars for the French government, with threats on all sides, unification of the country became a top priority. He opposes the idea of terror as the order of the day, defending instead "justice" as the order of the day. The Reign of Terror occurred from September of 1793 until July of 1794, and was a time period of extreme violence and paranoia during the French Revolution. The Reign of Terror is a well-known component of the French Revolution, mostly due to the excessive use of the guillotine to preserve the Revolution. Even though they were vague laws, people accepted the terror because it helped to combat their feelings of alienation and paranoia in regards to all aspects of the revolution. Under the social contract, the government was required to act for the general will, which represented the interests of everyone rather than a few factions. (1987), Shulim, Joseph I. "The Declaration of Pillnitz (1791)." [34][35] The radical revolutionaries and their supporters desired a cultural revolution that would rid the French state of all Christian influence. Accessed 21 October 2018. In any case, Robespierre was guillotined the next day, together with Saint-Just, Couthon and his brother Augustin Robespierre. The Reign of Terror was characterized by a dramatic rejection of long-held religious authority, its hierarchical structure, and the corrupt and intolerant influence of the aristocracy and clergy. [17], The writings of Baron de Montesquieu, another Enlightenment thinker of the time, greatly influenced Robespierre as well. It was not until after the execution of Louis XVI and the annexation of the Rhineland that the other monarchies began to feel threatened enough to form the First Coalition. [36] This process began with the fall of the monarchy, an event that effectively defrocked the State of its sanctification by the clergy via the doctrine of Divine Right and ushered in an era of reason.[37]. On 24 October the French Republican Calendar was enacted. The Committee of Public Safety passed the Decree Against Profiteers so the profits would have to sell goods and not hold them for themselves. Favourite answer. Maximilien Robespierre, Master of the Terror. "During the Reign of Terror, at least 300,000 suspects were arrested; 17,000 were officially executed, and perhaps 10,000 died in prison or without trial."[6]. Robespierre believed that the virtue needed for any democratic government was extremely lacking in the French people. The sans-culottes' violently demonstrated, pushing their demands and creating constant pressure for the Montagnards to enact reform. Document A: Decree Against Profiteers 1. After the beginning of the French Revolution, the surrounding monarchies did not show great hostility towards the rebellion. The Committee's powers were gradually eroded. They advocated for arrests of those deemed to oppose reforms against those with privilege, and the more militant members would advocate pillage in order to achieve the desired equality. On 9 September the convention established paramilitary forces, the "revolutionary armies", to force farmers to surrender grain demanded by the government. Included in those who were executed were many Girondins and also Philippe Égalité, formerly the duke of Orléans, who had even voted for the death of Louis XVI, his first cousin. McLetchie, Scott. Michel Biard et Hervé Leuwers, " Visages de la Terreur ", dans Michel Biard et Hervé Leuwers (dir. In March rebellion broke out in the Vendée in response to mass conscription, which developed into a civil war. [15] Drawing from the idea of a general will, Robespierre felt that the French Revolution could result in a Republic built for the general will but only once those who fought this ideal were expelled. In September 1793 price controls were extended to other staple consumer goods, and the armées révolutionnaireswere cre… Internet History Sourcebooks. However, conscription raised a large army that turned the tide of the war in France’s favor. The result was a continual push towards Terror. [citation needed]He protested against Catholic dogmas and the ways of Christianity, stating, "of all religions, the Christian should, of course, inspire the most toleration, but till now the Christians have been the most intolerant of all men." On 24 June 1793 the Convention adopted the first republican constitution of France, the French Constitution of 1793. By the end of 1793, two major factions had emerged, both threatening the Revolutionary Government: the Hébertists, who called for an intensification of the Terror and threatened insurrection, and the Dantonists, led by Georges Danton, who demanded moderation and clemency. Moreover, the sans-culottes, the urban workers of France, agitated leaders to inflict punishments on those who opposed the interests of the poor. Accessed 23 October 2018. Well phrased by Albert Soboul, "terror, at first an improvised response to defeat, once organized became an instrument of victory. On 10 November (20 Brumaire Year II of the French Republican Calendar), the Hébertists organized a Festival of Reason. Baskets full with several heads, countless corpses, and terror, roamed the streets of France. Emmet Kennedy. In the spring of 1794, it eliminated its enemies to the left (the Hébertists) and to the right (the Indulgents, or followers of Georges Danton). [33] The resulting instability caused problems that made forming the new Republic and achieving full political support critical. The great confusion that arose during the storming of the municipal Hall of Paris, where Robespierre and his friends had found refuge, makes it impossible to be sure of the wound's origin. The conscripted army, which gradually became the de facto war-time government of France pressure during the of. Activities were sent to the guillotine in where thousands were killed without trial or died in.. 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