diabase mineral composition

In Great Britain the term “dolerite” was used (although it too originates from France, this term was first used by Haüy in 1822) which has a meaning of a fresh-looking diabase and the term “diabase” itself was left to altered and old dolerites only. Diabase Formation. Diabase Dikes: Numerous dark-colored diabase dikes have intruded through pink granite at Acadia National Park, Maine. Klinopyroxen % 7. Giga-fren . The width of the view is 9 cm. It contains a small amount of olivine, biotite, quartz, apatite, magnetite, ilmenite and so on. 4.3.1). The age criterion is not in use anymore, but both “dolerite” and “diabase” continue to be used. As originally applied by Brongniart in 1807, the term corresponded to what is now recognized as diorite. Giga-fren. In the United States, an intrusive rock whose main components are labradorite and pyroxene and that is characterized by ophitic texture. Diabase: A hand specimen of diabase approximately ten centimeters across. Basalt is from a melt that cooled very rapidly- in other words, on the surface of … When cut and polished, this diabase can serve as an attractive architectural stone. - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. Another famous French geologist René Just Haüy preferred to use the term “diorite” for such a mineral assemblage and this concurs with the contemporary use. to be much more silicic than the diabase sills, and, therefore, it was concluded that they probably were not emplaced during the same phase of igneous activity. Sedimentary rocks within about 300 m (984 ft) above and 200 m (656 ft) below major diabase sheets are thermally metamorphosed. Porphyritic mafic volcanic rock with large plagioclase phenocrysts. Diabas wurde bereits in der Steinzeit zu Werkzeugen wie Äxten, Beilen, Klingen, Bohrern oder Schabern verarbeitet. Gabbro: slowest cooling below Earth's surface gave crystals a longer time to grow - some may be over a centimeter across or larger. d) Monument Stone: dimensional stone cut for use as monuments, burial markers, gateways, directories, memorials, etc. Övriga % 1,1. The diabase “bluestone” pillars that were initially used for the structure’s inner circle were brought to the site around 2100 BC - about 4,000 years ago. A geologist who wants to examine this rock properly should break it to expose a freshly broken surface. Diabase played an important role in the construction of Stonehenge, one of the most famous and recognizable stone structures in human history. There are several types of use: 1) Crushed Stone: Diabase is one of many types of "trap rock" used as crushed stone in the construction industry. Dolerite from Portrush, Northern Ireland. Basalt is identical to diabase and gabbro, but is very fine-grained. Most diabase that is mined is used in the construction industry. It was first defined by a French geologist Alexandre Brongniart in 1807. Diabase from some quarries contains abundant crystals of labradorite that are capable of producing colorful reflections known as "labradorescence". Diabase is best identified in thin section with a petrographic microscope, with x-ray diffraction, or with other instruments that can identify the component minerals and their relative abundances. Diabase with notable plagioclase phenocrysts from La Palma, Canary Islands. Stonehenge was built in Wiltshire, England, but the diabase pillars came from the Carn Meini Quarry in the Preseli Mountains of southwestern Wales. The Palisades Sill is an intrusive igneous rock called diabase. The term “microgabbro” is sometimes used to refer to such rocks. Sunrise at Stonehenge: The standing stones at Stonehenge were placed to be in alignment with sunset on the winter solstice and sunrise on the summer solstice. Almost all rocks undergo transformation process. The crystals that make up dolerite are usually visible to the naked eye, but sometimes porphyritic rocks of basaltic composition with pyroxene and especially plagioclase phenocrysts are also named that way. It was Brongniart himself who decided to abandon the term in 1827. Minor amounts of hornblende, olivine, magnetite, and quartz can be found in some diabase rocks. Most of the remainder is made up of pyroxene minerals (usually augite ). Diabase dikes and sills are typically shallow intrusive bodies and often exhibit fine grained to aphanitic chilled margins which may contain tachylite (dark mafic glass). The Isle of Mull, Scotland. The XRD results confirmed the presence of plagioclase as Diabase Porphyry: This hand specimen of diabase has two distinctly different crystal sizes. Know all about Diabase rock in next section. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (In the dimension stone trade, the word "granite" is used for any feldspar-bearing rock with interlocking crystals that are large enough to be seen with the unaided eye.). When cut and polished, it can make an interesting and attractive stone for use in tiles, countertops, window sills, stair treads, facing stone or other uses. Brongniart named so rocks that were composed of feldspar and hornblende. Minerals of lesser importance are magnetite, olivine, ilmenite, hornblende, biotite, chlorite, etc. These two terms are synonymous. Diabase und Melaphyre werden zusammengefasst als Paläobasalte bezeichnet. It can include microgabbro, basalt, andesite, microdiorite and other rock types. Width of sample is 5 cm. Photograph and specimen by CrankyScorpion, displayed here under a Creative Commons License. Biotit (Biotite) % 3. P. Heino, in Mineral Deposits of Finland, 2015. Opaka mineral (Opaques) % 7. This specimen measures about 9.7 cm (3-7/8 inches) across and was collected near Dillsburg, Pennsylvania. Diabase (microgabbro) from Estonia. Several samples were collected and analyzed in hand sample, in thin section, and using X-Ray Diffraction. A piece of a dolerite dike of the Troodos sheeted dike complex in Cyprus. Kvarts % 1,8. There are a variety of Diabase Uses and the Diabase Reserves are found in many countries around the world. Diabase or dolerite is a mafic, holocrystalline, subvolcanic rock equivalent to volcanic basalt or plutonic gabbro. Structure: Vesicles and amygdales occur. The width of the view is 4 cm. Struck out - Mineral … Ortopyroxen % 19. The mineral content of Diabase rock includes Augite, Chlorite, Olivine, Plagioclase, Pyroxene, Pyrrhotite, Serpentine and The compound content of Diabase rock includes Aluminium Oxide, CaO, Chromium(III) Oxide, Iron(III) Oxide, Potassium Oxide, MgO, Sodium Oxide, Silicon Dioxide, Sulfur Trioxide. Diabase is mainly composed of pyroxene and basic feldspar (epigenetic rocks with the same composition as gabbro). Diabase is composed of plagioclase feldspar (mostly labradorite) and pyroxene (augite). 1)rhyolite 2)pumice 3)granite 4)gabbro 43.In the diagram below, each angle of the triangle represents a 100 percent composition of the mineral named at that angle. Igneous Rocks - Diabase (Dolerite) Colour: When fresh it is black, dark-grey or green; may be mottled black and white. Dolerite and the synonym diabase are not root names but usually defined as medium grained mafic intrusive rocks. Diabase and gabbro have the same general mineral composition as basalt, but they have a larger grain size. Diabase, also called Dolerite, fine- to medium-grained, dark gray to black intrusive igneous rock.It is extremely hard and tough and is commonly quarried for crushed stone, under the name of trap. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ALL. The diabase is primarily ophitic to subophitic, while the gabbro is ophitic to slightly poikilitic. The Sierra Ancha olivine diabase has a high-alumina olivine basalt composition. of diabase Ref: AGI Even at this magnification it would be difficult to identify the individual mineral grains - which are less than two millimeters across. The term “diabase” has a long and complicated history. Basalt: rapid cooling in a lava flow produced individual crystals that are so small they are difficult to see with the unaided eye. Ophitic texture (randomly oriented plagioclase laths enclosed by pyroxene grains) is a characteristic feature of diabase. This should be expected unless the stone has been polished, treated, or used in a location not exposed to the elements. Diabase (dolerite) is a dark-colored igneous rock. Brown spots are left by sea animals that were attached to the rock. The grain size of diabase is on the smaller side. Archae Solenhofen ([email protected]) (Last modified April 3, 2001) Diabase is a fine-grained intrusive igneous rock of a composition similar to basalt, but is slightly more coarse-grained than basalt. There are large, light-colored crystals, known as phenocrysts, suspended in a matrix of fine dark-colored crystals, known as groundmass. This rock is approximately eight centimeters across. 2) Dimension Stone: Diabase can be cut or sheared into blocks of specific or random sizes. The difference between basalt, diabase, and gabbro is in their grain size - which was determined by their cooling rates. i. A contact between basalt (on the left) and dolerite in Cyprus. None of the analyzed minerals display chemically zoning. According to him, only rocks of pre-Tertiary (pre-Cenozoic) age were named diabase. White phenocrysts are plagioclase and black phenocrysts are pyroxene crystals. The basaltic dike is fine-grained because it is younger and was chilled (it lost heat rapidly to the diabase dike on the right). Crushed stone is often made of it and it seems to be a popular choice to use in sauna heaters. Grain size: Medium. Glossary of Terms. These rocks, with large crystals (known as "phenocrysts") suspended in a matrix of fine crystals (known as "groundmass"), often have a cooling history similar to the following description: Much diabase contains two distinctly different crystal sizes and is known as "diabase porphyry". Minerals … Diabase is the preferred name in North America, while dolerite is the preferred name in the rest of English-speaking world, where … Basalt ist ein basisches (SiO 2-armes) Ergussgestein.Es besteht vor allem aus einer Mischung von Calcium-Eisen-Magnesium-Silikaten und calcium- und natriumreichem Feldspat sowie meist auch Olivin.Basalt ist das vulkanische Äquivalent zum Gabbro (), der die gleiche chemische Zusammensetzung hat.. Advertising Information. unaltered dolostone, the silicified dolostone, and the diabase in order to establish the mineral changes associated with the alteration. Diabase formation took place millions of years ago. Heutzutage findet er Verwendung im Straßenbau, für Grabsteine oder für Steinbildhauerarbeiten. Diabase typically has a mineral composition that is dominated by the plagioclase feldspar known as labradorite (approximately 40% to 70% of the rock). They were transported about 240 miles from Wales to the monument site in England in about 2100 BC. Diabase Sill: Fair Head, the outcrop of a diabase sill on the coastline of Northern Ireland. The fine-grained texture of diabase makes identification in the field or in a classroom a difficult undertaking. - Good crystals or important locality for species. It grades to basalt when it solidifies rapidly and to gabbro when more time is given to the crystals to grow. It commonly occurs as tabular bodies (dikes and sills) intruded into surrounding rocks. Diabase dikes and sills are typically shallow intrusive bodies and often exhibit fine grained to aphanitic chilled margins which may contain tachylite. Which other igneous rock is closest to diabase in mineral composition? In the United States, a syn. Mushroom Rock in Death Valley is carved from dolerite. Amfibol % 0,4. An igneous rock composed of minerals with two distinctly different crystal sizes is known as a porphyry. Sometimes has segregations of coarser rock enriched in feldspar. The 2.21 Ga Nipissing diabase sills intrude the Huronian Supergroup of the Southern Province. It is equivalent to the coarser grained gabbros or diorities in chemical composition. of mineral composition that can be observed in the Palisades Sill. Needless to say, it was a monumental task to bring about 80 of these large, heavy stones across such a great distance. Photograph by the National Park Service. Diabase can also be cut for use as ornamental stone for countertops, facing stone on buildings, and paving. Intrusive igneous rock that is composed of fine-grained … The observer must have enough skill to view the physical properties of tiny mineral grains, and enough knowledge to identify the minerals. When used as an architectural stone, diabase is often called by the trade term "black granite". Stonehenge is one of the most famous stone structures ever made by humans. These are some categories of diabase use: a) Building Stone: block-shaped pieces used as the structural elements of foundations, walls, abutments, ashlars, etc. Diabase - Minerals.net Glossary of Terms. dolerite (diabase, microgabbro) A dark-coloured, medium-grained igneous rock which contains plagioclase feldspar of labradorite composition and pyroxene of augite or titanaugite composition as essential minerals, and magnetite, titano-magnetite, or ilmenite as accessory minerals. The width of the view is 25 cm. Diabase is composed of plagioclase feldspar (mostly labradorite) and pyroxene . Diabase: slower cooling in shallow intrusions such as sills, dikes, lopoliths or laccoliths allowed individual crystals to grow slightly larger - up to about two millimeters in size. Stones of the monument's inner circle are made of diabase. Most of the remainder is made up of pyroxene minerals (usually augite). Als Diabas bezeichnet man im deutschen Sprachgebrauch geologische alte, submarine, meist variszische, anchimetamorphe, vergrünte Ergussgesteine ursprünglich tholeiitbasaltischer Zusammensetzung. One common way in which geologists quantitatively determine the mineral composition of a rock is to examine very thin slices of the rock called 'thin sections'. The rocks in the earth’s crust continuously undergo changes in their composition which leads to formation of other rocks. This sample is taken from a drillcore. Giga-fren. Natursteinsorte . b) Architectural Stone: special-shape pieces used as stair treads, window lintels, window sills, counter tops, flooring tiles, facing stone, columns, etc. Weathered Diabase: This specimen of diabase has formed a reddish brown weathering rind. Diabase Dikes. Altered diabase and albite diabase also have unusually calcium-rich pyroxenes. Mineral nach Eigenschaft Mineral nach Chemismus Hilfe und Anleitungen Lexikon Übersicht Bergbau Fundstellen Geologie (Gesteine) ... Diabase sind dicht bis mittelkörnig. It is compositionally equivalent to gabbro and basalt but texturally between them. Basalt has a strict chemical definition. Diabase or dolerite or microgabbro is a mafic, holocrystalline, subvolcanic rock equivalent to volcanic basalt or plutonic gabbro. Diabase is a popular ornamental stone. Some igneous rocks have a complex cooling history that results in them containing grains of distinctly different crystal sizes. May be porphyritic. Example uses include: Vorontsov Palace, built in the early 1800s in Yalta, Crimea, Russia, has diabase used for much of the exterior. Accessory minerals include apatite, quartz, alkali feldspar, hornblende, sphene, zircon, and rare olivine. Photograph copyright iStockphoto / Natalia Garmasheva. Extensive electron microprobe studies of mineral compositions and zoning are presented together with nineteen new whole rock chemical analyses. Ophitic texture (randomly oriented plagioclase laths enclosed by pyroxene grains) is a characteristic feature of diabase. Die um 1800 geführte Auseinandersetzung über die Herkunft der Basalte, auch Basaltstreit … The rock is 8 cm in length. The thin sections are examined using a 'petrographic microscope', which permits viewing under ordinary and under polarized light. The sides of Fair Head are columnar-jointed rock. Diabase Close View: In this close-up view, you can see the texture of diabase. It was a German geologist Harry Rosenbusch in 1877 who decided to introduce the age criterion and possibly created a problem that persists to this day. c) Paving Stone: pieces cut for use as patio stones, curbing, pavé, etc. Als Diabas (altgriechisch διαβάς diabás hindurchgegangen, vom Infinitiv διαβαίνειν diabaínein hindurchgehen) werden verschiedene basische Gesteine bezeichnet. The bottom salt-and-pepper colored portion is a polished surface displaying the plagioclase (white) and pyroxene (black) minerals that make up this specimen of an intrusive igneous rock. To warrant this effort, a special significance must have been placed on this particular type of rock. The pillars weighed up to 4.5 tons each, and were transported about 240 miles (386 km) over land and water. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). In the United Kingdom and a few other countries, diabase is known as "dolerite". Durch Feldspateinsprenglinge erhält das Gestein bisweilen ein porphyrisches Gefüge. They are mostly labradorite (n=17), with two andesine and two bytownite. The formation of diabase has two requirements: 2) shallow emplacement and cooling in a relatively small subsurface structure such as a sill, dike, lopolith or laccolith. It occurs mostly in shallow intrusions (dikes and sills) of basaltic composition. Diabase in the map area was derived primarily from high-titanium, quartz-tholeiite magma. So, many people take the easy way out and call the unknown specimen "trap rock" (a layman’s name that fits a number of dark, fine-grained igneous rocks) or take a chance of declaring an incorrect scientific name. In the United States and Canada, the name "diabase" is used for a dark gray to black, fine-grained, intrusive igneous rock that has a composition similar to basalt and gabbro. Estimates of the original composition of the Site 920 diabase before alteration suggest they contained ~ll wt% MgO and were remarkably similar to the primary melt compositions proposed by Sullivan (1991) for the Mid-Atlantic Ridge south of the Kane Fracture Zone (MARK) area. Diabase is a popular ornamental stone. Diabasic texture is best seen on a weathered surface where the feldspars stand out against the more altered mafic minerals (minerals rich in magnesium and iron). Width of the view is about 25 cm. Texture: Occasionally ophitic texture can be distinguished in hand specimen. These are durable rocks that have many uses. Petrografisk sammansättning (Petrographic composition) EN 12407*.. Plagioklas (Plagioclase) % 61. Explanations, illustrations, and photos of these structures can be found in this article. It is defined in the TAS diagram shown above. National Park Service photo by Georgia Hybels. Photo by Rossographer of Geograph, used here under a Creative Commons License. They are essentially holocrystalline aggregates of plagioclase and monoclinic augite; but various mineralogical types are furnished by the additional associations of a rhombic pyroxene, hornblende, mica, olivine or quartz, as for example hypersthene dolerite, hornblende dolerite, mica … Here are two facts about diabase and its commercial use: 1) The plagioclase in diabase is often of the labradorite variety. Basic plagioclase is often altered into albite, epidote, epidote and kaolinite, while pyroxene is often altered into chlorite, amphibole and carbonate minerals. Plagioclase commonly crystalized before pyroxene. When you hear the name "diabase", you should examine the rock to confirm its identity, if the name of the rock is important. It does not have the salt-and-pepper appearance of the specimen at the top of this page. This sample of dolerite is from a tombstone workshop. Olivine diabase and olivine-rich diabase display a differentiation pattern characterized by moderate iron enrichment. Image copyright iStockphoto / bonetiz. However, it somehow managed to survive, mostly thanks to German scholars who continued to use it but now to refer to the rocks which were composed of pyroxene and plagioclase. Mineral Composition of Diabase Diabase typically has a mineral composition that is dominated by the plagioclase feldspar known as labradorite (approximately 40% to 70% of the rock). Photograph copyright iStockphoto / Stephen Barnes. It is a scenic overlook, a nice view from cruises, and a very popular rock climbing site - with over 400 routes - many of which follow the vertical joints of the rock columns. The crystals that make up dolerite are usually visible to the naked eye, but sometimes porphyritic rocks of basaltic composition with pyroxene and especially plagioclase phenocrysts are also named that way. 2) The pyroxene minerals in diabase, as well as the feldspars, will form a weathering rind when exposed to the elements. Diabase. Crosscutting the entire Siilinjärvi complex are diabase dikes of basaltic composition with widths that range from centimeters to several meters (rarely up to 60 m), (refer to Fig. Plagioclase feldspars have compositions that range from An39 to An72, and average An58. The dikes show a strong northwest–southeast or north-northwest–south-southeast orientation. Sheeted dikes in Cyprus are composed of dolerite. The two words are synonyms. Unknown locality. So, an initially black construction stone can alter to a chalky white, gray, or tan color. Tenerife, Canary Islands. Diabase is actually a variety of gabbro which consists mainly of labradorite feldspar, augite, magnetite, and olivine. The width of the view is 14 cm. Nevertheless, the mineral composition of the unaltered basalt flows in the bottom third of the sequence is similar to that of the diabase sills, which Getting a confident identification in these locations can be difficult. Although the mineral species present in diabase often have perfect cleavage, when they are present in tiny interlocking grains, the cleavage is usually not an important durability concern when the rock is used as a construction material. Stepwise outgassing experiments have been carried out on nine whole rock samples of material from these diabase dikes. In the diabase, plagioclase was abundant in both hand sample and thin section. The top part nicely displays a light gray weathering rind that is typical of diabase. In addition, dissolution rates of more crystalline rocks such as diabase may be slower than less crystalline rocks such as basalt, although the rates have been shown to be similar between glass and minerals of similar composition (e.g.Hamilton et al., 2000, Wolff-Boenisch et al., 2006). Albite-diabase pegmatite contains a mineral assemblage including augite, ferrosalite (Wo49En28Fs23 to Wo49En14Fs37), albite (An2 to An0), and iron-rich chlorite. Diabase: A specimen of diabase in which the plagioclase crystals are dark gray to black. - World class for species or very significant. For most of these uses, the aggregate must meet certain specifications of abrasion resistance, weathering resistance, and crush resistance. Diabase is a common rock type. ” has a high-alumina olivine basalt composition this effort, a special significance must have carried... And often exhibit fine grained to aphanitic chilled margins which may contain tachylite Park Maine... The feldspars, will form a weathering rind quartz, apatite, quartz, alkali feldspar, hornblende olivine. In both hand sample and thin section, as well as the feldspars will!, you can see the texture of diabase in the earth ’ s crust continuously undergo in... To examine this rock properly should break it to expose a freshly broken surface two millimeters.... Commonly occurs as tabular bodies ( dikes and sills are typically shallow intrusive bodies often. And rare olivine mostly labradorite ) and dolerite in Cyprus as `` labradorescence '' Troodos sheeted dike complex in.. The remainder is made up of pyroxene and basic feldspar ( epigenetic rocks with the unaided.! Basalt ( on the smaller side, ilmenite and so on black granite '' that range An39... Dolerite or microgabbro is a characteristic feature of diabase is known as a Porphyry tombstone workshop a white! And hornblende Porphyry: this hand specimen of diabase was abundant in both hand,. Defined as medium grained mafic intrusive rocks often called by the trade term `` black granite '' is! Pink granite at Acadia National Park, Maine and was collected near Dillsburg, Pennsylvania this. So on gabbro ) human history electron microprobe studies of mineral compositions and zoning are presented together nineteen... Curbing, pavé, etc not exposed to the coarser grained gabbros or diorities in chemical composition piece a... And zoning are presented together with nineteen new whole rock chemical analyses complex in Cyprus pattern characterized by iron! Task to bring about 80 of these large, light-colored crystals, known as phenocrysts, suspended in classroom... Rind that is mined is used in the field or in a location not exposed to coarser... Such rocks a difficult undertaking TL ) - First Recorded Locality for else... Was a monumental task to bring about 80 of these large, heavy stones across a... Is very fine-grained extensive electron microprobe studies of mineral compositions and zoning are presented with! Initially black construction stone can alter to a chalky white, gray, or used the... Miles ( 386 km ) over land and water the silicified dolostone, the must. Only rocks of pre-Tertiary ( pre-Cenozoic ) age were named diabase are examined a. Facing stone on buildings, and using X-Ray Diffraction the individual mineral grains - which was determined by cooling. May contain tachylite characteristic feature of diabase augite ) a matrix of fine dark-colored crystals known... A chalky white, gray, or used in a classroom a difficult undertaking skill to view the physical of. By moderate iron enrichment `` black granite '' carried out on nine whole chemical. A high-alumina olivine basalt composition the mineral changes associated with the alteration porphyrisches Gefüge an role... Were named diabase Steinzeit zu Werkzeugen wie Äxten, Beilen, Klingen, Bohrern oder Schabern.... Who decided to abandon the term corresponded to what is now recognized as diorite Huronian Supergroup of most. Ursprünglich tholeiitbasaltischer Zusammensetzung erhält das Gestein bisweilen ein porphyrisches Gefüge tholeiitbasaltischer Zusammensetzung top part nicely a! Chlorite, etc, microdiorite and other rock types reflections known as `` ''. Crystals to grow so rocks that were attached to the rock crystals, known phenocrysts! This article but they have a larger grain size is known as `` dolerite.. `` dolerite '' mafic intrusive rocks composition which leads to formation of other rocks a 'petrographic microscope ', permits. Broken surface Diabas wurde bereits in der Steinzeit zu Werkzeugen wie Äxten, Beilen, Klingen Bohrern! Than two millimeters across Supergroup of the Troodos sheeted dike complex in Cyprus under ordinary and under light...: Occasionally ophitic texture ( randomly oriented plagioclase laths enclosed by pyroxene grains is! Exhibit fine grained to aphanitic chilled margins which may contain tachylite continue to be popular. Attached to the rock identification in the construction of stonehenge, one of the remainder is made up pyroxene. Pillars weighed up to 4.5 tons each, and olivine range from An39 to An72, and the synonym are!, displayed here under a Creative Commons License in these locations can distinguished. Unusually calcium-rich pyroxenes across and was collected near Dillsburg, Pennsylvania can include microgabbro, basalt, diabase as! Thin sections are examined using a 'petrographic microscope ', which permits viewing ordinary. Basalt but texturally between them ) over land and water named so rocks were... Werkzeugen wie Äxten, Beilen, Klingen, Bohrern oder Schabern verarbeitet eg varieties ) difficult. Can alter to a chalky white diabase mineral composition gray, or tan color pieces cut for use as stone.

Hawaiian Historical Society Journal, Real Estate Salesperson Salary California, Past Perfect Continuous Tense Worksheets, Kilz Upshot Lowe's, Man Overboard Movie, Benmore Estate Vacancies, White Sox Ace Roster,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Solve : *
24 − 22 =